Important Terms Used in Riveted Joints

The following terms in connection with the riveted joints are important from the subject point of view :

  1. Pitch: It is the distance from the centre of one rivet to the centre of the next rivet measured parallel to the seam as shown in Fig. 9.6. It is usually denoted by p.
  2. Back pitch: It is the perpendicular distance between the centre lines of the successive rows as shown in Fig. 9.6. It is usually denoted by pb.
  3. Diagonal pitch: It is the distance between the centres of the rivets in adjacent rows of zig-zag riveted joint as shown in Fig. 9.6. It is usually denoted by pd.
  4. Margin or marginal pitch: It is the distance between the centre of rivet hole to the nearest edge of the plate as shown in Fig. 9.6. It is usually denoted by m.



Effect of impurities on Cast Iron

Cast Iron contains small percentages of silicon, sulphur, manganese and phosphorous. The effect of these impurities on the cast iron are as follows:


  1. Silicon. It may be present in cast iron upto 4%. It provides the formation of free graphite which makes the iron soft and easily machinable. It also produces sound castings free from blow-holes, because of its high affinity for oxygen.
  2. Sulphur. It makes the cast iron hard and brittle. Since too much sulphur gives unsound casting, therefore, it should be kept well below 0.1% for most foundry purposes.
  3. Manganese. It makes the cast iron white and hard. It is often kept below 0.75%. It helps to exert a controlling influence over the harmful effect of sulphur.
  4. Phosphorus. It aids fusibility and fluidity in cast iron, but induces brittleness. It is rarely allowed to exceed 1%. Phosphoric irons are useful for casting of intricate design and for many light engineering castings when cheapness is essential.

Mechanical Properties of Metals

The mechanical properties of the metals are those which are associated with the ability of the material to resist mechanical forces and load. These mechanical properties of the metal include strength, stiffness, elasticity, plasticity, ductility, brittleness, malleability, toughness, resilience, creep and hardness. We shall now discuss these properties as follows:

  1. Strength. It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied forces without breaking or yielding. The internal resistance offered by a part to an externally applied force is called *stress.
  2. Stiffness. It is the ability of a material to resist deformation under stress. The  modulus of elasticity is the measure of stiffness.
  3. Elasticity. It is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation when the external forces are removed. This property is desirable for materials used in tools and machines. It may be noted that steel is more elastic than rubber.
  4. Plasticity. It is property of a material which retains the deformation produced under load permanently. This property of the material is necessary for forgings, in stamping images on coins and in ornamental work.
  5. Ductility. It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with the application of a tensile force. A ductile material must be both strong and plastic. The ductility is usually measured by the terms, percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. The ductile material commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing ductility) are mild steel, copper, aluminium, nickel, zinc, tin and lead.
  6. Brittleness. It is the property of a material opposite to ductility. It is the property of breaking of a material with little permanent distortion. Brittle materials when subjected to tensile loads, snaoff without giving any sensible elongation. Cast iron is a brittle material.
  7. Malleability. It is a special case of ductility which permits materials to be rolled or hammered into thin sheets. A malleable material should be plastic but it is not essential to be so strong. The malleable materials commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing malleability) are lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminium.
  8. Toughness. It is the property of a material to resist fracture due to high impact loads like hammer blows. The toughness of the material decreases when it is heated. It is measured by the amount of energy that a unit volume of the material has absorbed after being stressed up to the point of fracture. This property is desirable in parts subjected to shock and impact loads.
  9. Machinability. It is the property of a material which refers to a relative case with which a material can be cut. The machinability of a material can be measured in a number of ways such as comparing the tool life for cutting different materials or thrust required to remove the material at some given rate or the energy required to remove a unit volume of the material. It may be noted that brass can be easily machined than steel.
  10. Resilience. It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to resist shock and impact loads. It is measured by the amount of energy absorbed per unit volume within elastic limit. This property is essential for spring materials. Creep. When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for a long period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called creep. This property is considered in designing internal combustion engines, boilers and turbines.
  11. Fatigue. When a material is subjected to repeated stresses, it fails at stresses below the yield point stresses. Such type of failure of a material is known as fatigue. The failure is caused by means of a progressive crack formation which are usually fine and of microscopic size. This property is considered in designing shafts, connecting rods, springs, gears, etc.
  12. Hardness. It is a very important property of the metals and has a wide variety of meanings. It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear, scratching, deformation and machinability etc. It also means the ability of a metal to cut another metal. The hardness is usually expressed in numbers which are dependent on the method of making the test. The hardness of a metal may be determined by the following tests :

         (a) Brinell hardness test,
         (b) Rockwell hardness test,
         (c) Vickers hardness (also called Diamond Pyramid) test, and
         (d) Shore scleroscope.

Laws of Motion

Newton has formulated three laws of motion, which are the basic postulates or assumptions on which the whole system of dynamics is based. Like other scientific laws, these are also justified as the results, so obtained, agree with the actual observations. Following are the three laws of motion :IsaacNewton

  1. Newton’s First Law of Motion: It states, “Newton’s First Law of Motion Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless acted upon by some external force”. This is also known as Law of Inertia.
  2. Newton’s Second Law of Motion: It states, “The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the same direction in which the force acts”.
  3. Newton’s Third Law of Motion: It states, “To every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction”.

Types of clutches

Types of Clutches:
Following are the two main types of clutches commonly used in engineering practice :
1. Positive clutches                2. Friction clutches.

1. Positive Clutches:
The positive clutches are used when a positive drive is required. The simplest type of a positive clutch is a jaw or claw clutch. The jaw clutch permits one shaft to drive another through a direct contact of interlocking jaws. It consists of two halves, one of which is permanently fastened to the driving shaft by a sunk key. The other half of the clutch is movable and it is free to slide axially on the driven shaft, but it is prevented from turning relatively to its shaft by means of feather key. The jaws of the clutch may be of square type as shown in Fig. or of spiral type as shown in Fig.

A square jaw type is used where engagement and disengagement in motion and under load is not necessary. This type of clutch will transmit power in either direction of rotation. The spiral jaws may be left-hand or right-hand, because power transmitted by them is in one direction only. This type of clutch is occasionally used where the clutch must be engaged and disengaged while in motion. The use of jaw clutches are frequently applied to sprocket wheels, gears and pulleys. In such a case, the non-sliding part is made integral with the hub.

2.Friction Clutches:
A friction clutch has its principal application in the transmission of power of shafts and machines which must be started and stopped frequently. Its application is also found in cases in which power is to be delivered to machines partially or fully loaded. The force of friction is used to start the driven shaft from rest and gradually brings it up to the proper speed without excessive slipping of the friction surfaces. In automobiles, friction clutch is used to connect the engine to the drive shaft. In operating such a clutch, care should be taken so that the friction surfaces engage easily and gradually bring the driven shaft up to proper speed. The proper alignment of the bearing must be maintained and it should be located as close to the clutch as possible. It may be noted that :
1. The contact surfaces should develop a frictional force that may pick up and hold the load with reasonably low pressure between the contact surfaces.
2. The heat of friction should be rapidly *dissipated and tendency to grab should be at a minimum.
3. The surfaces should be backed by a material stiff enough to ensure a reasonably uniform distribution of pressure.